Why is Fiscal Policy Often Procyclical?

Why is Fiscal Policy Often Procyclical? (2008)
with Alberto Alesina and Guido Tabellini. Journal of the European Economic Association, 6(5): 1006-1036, September 2008 [PDF]

Fiscal policy is procyclical in many developing countries. We explain this policy failure with a political agency problem. Procyclicality is driven by voters who seek to “starve the Leviathan” to reduce political rents. Voters observe the state of the economy but not the rents appropriated by corrupt governments. When they observe a boom, voters optimally demand more public goods or lower taxes, and this induces a procyclical bias in fiscal policy. The empirical evidence is consistent with this explanation: Procyclicality of fiscal policy is more pronounced in more corrupt democracies.